Bryn Mawr Classical Review 1998.3.09
Word count: words
1. E.g., Lysias XXIII (in Pancleonem) 5, Isoc. VI (Archidamus) 4.
2. E.g., her statement (p. 77) that "secrecy, in the sense of concealing numbers, equipment or battle plans, was hardly ever important in warfare" can be challenged in the case of almost every major polis, but does not invalidate her point that deception was a problem in intelligence analysis. A small sampling of a single facet of secrecy (concealing numbers and movements), includes: Athenians e.g., Alcibiades (Xen. Hell. 1.1.15), Iphicrates (Polyaenus 3.9.8, 3.9.19), Phocion (Plut. Phoc. 15.1 ff.), and Thrasylus (Polyaenus 1.47.1); Corinthians e.g., Thuc. 4.8; Lacedaemonians e.g., Agesilaus (Xen. Ages. 6.6), Alcotas (Xen. Hell. 5.4.56), Chalcideus (Thuc. 8.14.1), Mindarus (Thuc. 8.99.1); Macedonians e.g., Arrian Anab. 2.9.1, 6.6.4, Q. Curt. 3.10.3; Syracusans e.g., Dionysius (Polyaenus 5.2.12, Leo Byz. 7.1), cf. Hermocrates (Thuc. 6.72.5); Thebans e.g., Neocles (Paus. 9.1.6), cf. Epaminondas (Xen. Hell. 7.5.8), and the decree concerning the Athenian exiles under arms (Xen. Hell. 2.4.2, Dinarchus in Demosth. 25, Plut. Pelop. 6.4); and Thracians e.g., Seuthes (Xen. Anab. 7.3.36).
3. For the first assumption, one has to look no farther than the first page of her introduction, where she relates an example of the arrival of news in Sparta in the early fourth century, and comments: [quot ] they [the Spartans] had no permanent system of intelligence gathering, and nor did any other polis, relying instead on the actions of chance partisans like Herodas to bring them the information that they needed. The contradiction between the perceived importance of news, and the lack of institutions to gather it, is one of the roots of this survey.[quot ] It can be argued that there were permanent institutions in Sparta which had among their functions information-gathering, whatever one thinks of the krypteia. These included the hippeis (and perhaps more specifically the hippagretai and agathoergoi) and the pythioi; one might also note the Spartan practice of attaching manteis to kings on campaign. It can even be demonstrated that some Greek states had prototypical intelligence organizations (e.g., the system comprised of the Anaktes, Gerginoi and Promalanges in Cyprian Salamis in the very late fifth and early fourth centuries).
4. E.g., Xen. Cyr. 1.6.43 ff.; cf. 6.1.31-44, 6.2.1 ff., 6.3.11-20.
5. Thuc. 7.48.2, 73.3; Plut. Nicias 18.6, 21.3. See also Gomme 4.425-426 on Thuc. 7.48.2.
6. Plut. Nicias 4.2, 5, 23 (Hiero and Stilbides); cf. Philochorus FGrHist 328 F135, Schol. vet. in Aristoph. Pax 1031).